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Prevalence And Severity Of Valvular Heart Disease In Centenarians
Jorge Perez, Benjamin Hurwitz, Douglas Salguero, Marissa Donattele Donattele, Esteban Escolar, Christos G. Mihos.
Mount Sinai Medical Center of Florida, Miami Beach, FL, USA.

OBJECTIVE: The increasing life expectancy in developed countries has led to a growing prevalence of centenarians. Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality among this group, however, data on valvular heart disease is limited. Our study aimed to describe the prevalence and severity of valvular heart disease in a cohort of centenarians.
METHODS: A retrospective case series examining the consecutive echocardiographic findings of 100 centenarians was performed. All patients aged >= 100 years old and who had a transthoracic echocardiogram between 2008 to 2021 were included. Valvular heart disease was assessed according to the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines for native valvular regurgitation and stenosis, and graded as none/trace, mild, moderate, or severe. RESULTS:
The mean age was 102 2 years, 78% were female, and the mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure measured 126 24/69 14 mmHg. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was ≥ 50% in 78% of patients. Aortic stenosis was present in 33%, with severe obstruction noted in 12 of 33 cases. Aortic regurgitation was present in 59%, without any severe lesions noted. Mitral annular calcification was found in 78%, of which 17 of 78 had severe annular calcification. Mitral and tricuspid regurgitation were the most common pathologies and present in 94% and 93% patients, respectively. However, only 13 of 94 had severe mitral regurgitation, and 12 of 93 had severe tricuspid regurgitation. Mitral stenosis was the least common lesion and present in 3%, with 1 case of severe obstruction. Finally, there were no patients with a history of prior surgical or percutaneous valve intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of centenarians are observed to be normotensive females with a preserved LVEF. The most common valve pathologies are regurgitant lesions of the mitral, tricuspid, and aortic valves, with a low prevalence of severe valve disease.


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